課程規劃-維基教育系列

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This page is a translated version of the page Syllabus education brochure and the translation is 45% complete.

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This is the text of the 12-week Syllabus education program brochure, revised August 2013.

Text

page 1 (cover)

WikipediaEduBelow.svg

課程規劃:用12週時間,撰寫一篇維基百科條目的作業範例

維基媒體基金會

page 2

好用資源

線上指引:把維基百科用作教學工具

The Essentials brochure, p 2, online orientation screenshot.pdf

我們十分鼓勵所有的教師都在規劃課程大綱之前,先讀過線上指引。它能夠讓您一窺維基百科的編輯規範與社群文化、介紹基礎的編輯語法、也會帶領您瞭解典型的維基百科作業如何進行。

http://zhwp.org/WP:EDUCATOR

教師須知:如何應用維基百科作為教育工具

Instructor Basics How to Use Wikipedia as a Teaching Tool.pdf

本手册涵盖了您需要了解的关键维基百科方针和结构,有关条目选择和社群协作的最佳实践,以及样本评分结构。

http://education.wikimedia.org/instructorbasics

個案分享:教師如何使用維基百科進行教學

Wikipedia Education Program Case Studies.pdf

本手冊涵括了來自6國,共15位的教授,他們各自解釋如何在教室運用維基百科、評量學生的作業。這本手冊的線上版有提供他們所規劃的課程大綱連結以及作業講義。

http://education.wikimedia.org/casestudies

page 3

使用这个教学大纲

在您开始之前

This sample syllabus document is the third in a series of brochures about how to use Wikipedia as a teaching tool. Before you delve into the specifics of syllabus construction, you may want to consult the “Instructor Basics” and “Case Studies” brochures to get a better idea of best practices, what learning objectives the assignments can achieve, and how you might want to grade a Wikipedia assignment. You are also highly encouraged to go through the online orientation for educators.

This document provides a full-term sample syllabus for a major Wikipedia writing assignment, incorporating many of the best practices for such projects. You can use it as a starting point for your own Wikipedia assignments, or take bits and pieces to adapt to your course.

This sample syllabus is for a 12-week assignment to write Wikipedia articles. For syllabi using other Wikipedia assignments, see the Case Studies brochure.

了解我们使用的图标

Handouts

Throughout this brochure, we’ll reference handouts you should pass out to your students. All of these handouts are linked from the web version of this brochure:

http://education.wikimedia.org/syllabus

WP:EDUCATORS

快捷方式

Shortcuts to important pages on Wikipedia are listed throughout this syllabus as | shortcut WP:EDUCATORS. 
To use one, simply type the shortcut into the search bar 
on Wikipedia and press enter.

里程碑

Experienced instructors say it is crucial for students who are going to be editing Wikipedia to become comfortable not only with the markup, but also the community. Requiring milestones throughout the term will acclimate students to the site and head off procrastination. Instructors who do not set up these milestones throughout the term usually have bad experiences with their assignments.

page 4

12周的课程大纲时间表

Wikipedia assignments work best when you introduce them early in the term, since the students need to acquaint themselves with the technology. Knowing what they are preparing themselves for makes learning the ins and outs of Wikipedia relevant.

Try to integrate your Wikipedia assignment with the course themes. Engage your students with questions of media fluency and knowledge construction throughout your course.

在线学生培训

The online training for students introduces the Wikipedia community and how it works, demonstrates the basics of editing and walks students through their first edits, gives advice for selecting articles and drafting revisions, and covers some of the ways they can find help as they get started. It takes about an hour and ends with a certification step that you can use to verify that students completed the training. | shortcut WP:STUDENT

Instructor Basics brochure, p 11, Student training screenshot.pdf

http://enwp.org/WP:STUDENT

page 5

第1周

Wikipedia essentials

When you’re introducing your class and going over the syllabus, be sure to let students know they’ll be working on Wikipedia this term. This can be a good time to talk about their preconceived notions of Wikipedia and see if any students have edited in the past.

课堂上

  • 课程概述
  • 介绍在课程中将会怎样使用维基百科

•Handout: “Editing Wikipedia” brochure (available online or in print from the Wikimedia Foundation)

您的维基百科课程页面

Before your class begins, you'll need to create a course page on Wikipedia. Course pages are typically used to explain—to both students and the Wikipedia community—the details of your Wikipedia assignments, to keep track of which students are in the class and which articles they are working on, and to ask questions and discuss problems. For details on how to set up a course page, see “The Essentials: What to do before the term starts'” brochure or go to the page “Wikipedia:Course pages.” | shortcut WP:COURSE

第2周

编辑基础知识

It is important to get students editing Wikipedia right away so that they become familiar with the MediaWiki markup ("wikisyntax", "wikimarkup", or "wikicode"). As the instructor, you have several options to teach them this technical material. You can teach it yourself, invite Wikipedia's Campus Ambassadors and/or local Wikipedians to do so, or contact a teaching and technology center on your campus and ask for their assistance. You can also assign students to complete a standard online training. We suggest that, however you choose to do this, you have the students learn the basics of editing, the anatomy of an article, and ways to select articles suitable for the assignment.

课堂上

•Basics of editing •Anatomy of Wikipedia articles, what makes a good article, how to distinguish between good and bad articles •Tips on finding the best articles to work on for class assignments •Handouts: “Using talk pages” handout and “Evaluating Wikipedia article quality” brochure

Assignment (due Week 3)

•Complete the online student orientation. During this training, you will create an account, make edits in a sandbox, and learn the basic rules of Wikipedia. | shortcut WP:STUDENT

•Create a user page, and sign up on the list of students on the course page.

•To practice editing and communicating on Wikipedia, introduce yourself to any Wikipedians helping your class (such as a Wikipedia Ambassador), and leave a message for a classmate on their user talk page.


里程碑

•All students have Wikipedia user accounts and are listed on the course page.

page 6

第3周

探索主题领域

It is critical for students to begin researching their Wikipedia topics early in the term. Finding topics with the right balance between lack of prior good Wikipedia coverage and available literature from which to build new Wikipedia coverage can be tricky. As an alternative to assigning students to propose Wikipedia topics to write about, you may wish to prepare a list of appropriate non-existent or underdeveloped articles ahead of time. This requires more preparation but gets students to the point of researching and writing their articles sooner.

课堂上

•Handouts: “Advice for choosing articles” and “How to get help”

作业(第4周上交)

•Critically evaluate an existing Wikipedia article related to the class, and leave suggestions for improving it on the article’s talk page.

•Research and list 3–5 articles on your Wikipedia user page that you will consider working on as your main project. Ask your instructor for comment.

获取帮助

When things go wrong—students’ articles are challenged, students get into arguments with other editors, or you or the students are simply unsure about how to solve a problem—you should seek out help immediately. If there are experienced Wikipedians working with your class (such as Online Ambassadors), try asking them first. You can post problems and questions to the “Education noticeboard” | shortcut WP:ENB For guidance getting started for either you or your students, try the Teahouse | shortcut WP:TH a friendly space for new editors. The online orientation highlights other places you can go for help.

第4周

使用来源

As they start using sources to improve Wikipedia articles, it is especially important for students to understand Wikipedia’s policies on plagiarism and copyright violation. Student generally know that copying whole paragraphs or sentences from sources constitutes plagiarism. But many don't know about—or think they can get away with—subtler forms of plagiarism, such as using shorter phrases without attribution or beginning from a copied text and simply rewording it while leaving the structure and meaning intact (i.e., close paraphrasing). Any form of plagiarism or copyright violation is likely to result in students' work being removed from Wikipedia.

课堂上

•Handouts: “Referencing on Wikipedia” and “Understanding Wikipedia’s copyright policy”

作业(第5周上交)

•Add 1–2 sentences of new information, backed up with a citation to an appropriate source, to a Wikipedia article related to the class.

对于下一周

•Instructor evaluates students’ article selections, by week 5.

您就是专家

Applying your own expertise to Wikipedia’s coverage of your field will be key to a successful assignment. You understand the broader intellectual context where individual topics fit in, you can recognize where Wikipedia falls short, you know—or know how to find—the relevant literature, and you know what topics your students should be able to handle. So your guidance on article choice and sourcing is critical for both your students’ success and the improvement of Wikipedia.

page 7

第5周

選擇條目

By this week, ideally, you have evaluated the students' article choices and given them feedback, helping them to choose articles that are appropriate for the assignment. Because students often wait until the last minute to do their research or choose sources unsuited for Wikipedia, we strongly suggest that the students put together a bibliography of materials they want to use in editing the article which can then be assessed by you and other Wikipedians.

课堂上

•Discuss the range of topics students will be working on and 
strategies for researching and writing about them.

作业(第6周上交)

•Select an article to work on, removing the rest from your user page. Add your article to the class’s course page.

•Compile a bibliography of relevant reliable sources and post it to the talk page of the article you are working on. Begin reading the sources.

第6周

起草初学者文章

Once students have gotten somewhat of a grip on their topics and the sources they will use to write about them, it’s time to start writing on Wikipedia. You can assign them to jump right in and edit live or start in their own sandboxes. There are pros and cons to each approach.

Pros and cons to sandboxes: Sandboxes make students feel safe because they can edit without the pressure of the whole world reading their drafts or other Wikipedians altering their writing. However, sandbox editing limits many of the unique aspects of using Wikipedia as a teaching tool, such as collaborative writing and incremental drafting. Spending more than a week or two in sandboxes is strongly discouraged.

Pros and cons to editing live: Editing live is exciting for the students because they can see their changes to the articles immediately and experience the collaborative editing process throughout the assignment. However, because new editors often unintentionally break Wikipedia rules, sometimes students’ additions are questioned or removed.

课堂上

•Talk about Wikipedia culture and etiquette, and (optionally) revisit the concept of sandboxes and how to use them.

•Q&A session with instructor and/or Wikipedia Ambassadors about 
interacting on Wikipedia and getting started with writing.

作业(第7周上交)

•If you are starting a new article, write a 3–4 paragraph summary version of your article—with citations—in your Wikipedia sandbox. If you are improving an existing article, write a summary version reflecting the content the article will have after it's been improved, and post this along with a brief description of your plans on the article’s talk page.

•Begin working with classmates and other editors to polish your short starter article and fix any major issues.

•Continue research in preparation for expanding your article.

里程碑

  • 所有学生都已开始在维基百科上编辑条目或草稿。

page 8

第7周

移动草稿至主名字空间

Whether students are starting new articles or expanding existing articles, it’s critical to get them working live on Wikipedia as soon as possible. Short summary versions for new articles (and short existing articles that have been expanded five-fold) are great starting points for working live in main space.

课堂上

•Handout: “Moving out of your sandbox”

作业(第8周上交)

•Move sandbox articles into main space.

•Optional: For new articles or qualifying expansions of stubs, compose a one-sentence “hook,” nominate it for “Did you know,” and monitor the nomination for any issues identified 
by other editors.

•Begin expanding your article into a comprehensive treatment 
of the topic.

维基百科进程

Advanced students’ articles may qualify for submission to Did You Know, a section on Wikipedia’s main page featuring new content. Submitting articles to DYK will probably be your class’s first major contact with Wikipedia’s behind-the-scenes article processes. We strongly recommend either trying this yourself beforehand, or working closely with one or more experienced Wikipedians to help your students navigate the process smoothly. If your students are working on a related set of articles, it may be good to combine multiple article nominations into a single hook; this helps keep your students’ work from swamping the process or antagonizing the editors who maintain it.

第8周

完善條目

At this point, many students will have ‘gotten it’, and have a clear understanding of how to move forward. From there, the most important thing is giving feedback, both on the work they’re doing—what is missing, what sources could be used to improve it, whether the balance is appropriate—and on how 
to keep within Wikipedia’s guidelines, particularly Neutral Point of View | shortcut WP:NPOV and No Original Research. 
| shortcut WP:NOR

Other students may have stumbled with some element of getting their initial work live on Wikipedia. This is the key point to identify where students are having trouble—whether from negative reactions from other editors, technical hang-ups, problems finding good sources and using them appropriately, plagiarism, or something else. This is a good time to do a quick scan (at least) of what each student has contributed so far.

Workshop in class or outside of class

  • 演示上传图像并将图像添加到条目中。
  • 分享经验并讨论问题。

•Handouts: “Illustrating Wikipedia: A guide to contributing content to Wikimedia Commons” and “Evaluating Wikipedia article quality” (handed out originally in week 2)

作业(第9周上交)

•Expand your article into an initial draft of a comprehensive treatment of the topic.

•Select two classmates’ articles that you will peer review and 
copy-edit. (You don’t need to start reviewing yet.)

page 9

第9周

获得并提供反馈

Collaboration is a critical element of contributing to
Wikipedia. For some students, this will happen spontaneously; their choice of topics will attract interested Wikipedians who will pitch in with ideas, copy-edits, or even substantial contributions to the students’ articles. Online Ambassadors who take a strong interest in the topics students are working on can make great collaborators. In many cases, however, there will be little spontaneous editing of students’ articles before the end of the term. Fortunately, a class full of fellow learners is a great pool of peer reviewers. You can make the most of this by assigning students to review each others’ articles soon after full-length drafts are posted, to give students plenty of time to act on the advice of their peers.

课堂上

•As a group, have the students offer suggestions for improving one or two of the students’ articles, setting the example for what is expected from a solid encyclopedia article.

作业(第10周上交)

•Peer review two of your classmates’ articles. Leave suggestions on the article talk pages.

•Copy-edit the two reviewed articles.

里程碑

•All articles have been reviewed by others. All students have reviewed articles by their classmates.

评级维基百科条目

The initiative to improve the quality of all articles has led Wikipedians to introduce a rating system (summarized below) that describes the progression from Stub to Featured Article. Encourage your students to familiarize themselves with this rating system and use it when doing peer reviews of each others’ articles. Students should keep in mind that B-class and C-class articles on Wikipedia are not equivalent to a traditional “B” or “C” class work in academia. Good Article and Featured Article are only attainable through a challenging peer-review process on Wikipedia, and only the most advanced students should contemplate submitting their work to these processes.

典范条目

The article meets the featured article criteria | shortcut
 WP:FACR and has gone through the FA candidates process 
| shortcut WP:FAC Achieving FA status is rare, although not unprecedented, for Wikipedia class projects.

优良条目

The article meets the good article criteria | shortcut 
WP:GACR and has gone though a successful good article nomination | shortcut WP:GAN Good articles are challenging, but possible, for classes that engage with Wikipedia throughout the term. Leave more time for review and revision of GAs are your goal, since it typically takes several weeks before a nominated article receives a review.

B

The article is mostly complete and without major issues, but requires some further work to reach good article standards. This level of quality is realistic for good students who work hard on their Wikipedia assignments and work on articles that are not too broad.

C

The article is substantial, but is still missing important content or contains a lot of irrelevant material. Your students can do better than this, but it will take effort.

Start

An article is developing, but is still incomplete and may require further reliable sources. Without feedback and guidance from the instructor, this is the typical level of quality achieved by students. It's also, approximately, the typical level of quality of a random Wikipedia article longer than a few paragraphs.

小作品

The article contains only a very basic description of the topic, from a single sentence up to a few paragraphs. (Articles marked as stubs may actually have improved beyond stub status.)

page 10

第10周

回应反馈

At this point, students should have produced nearly complete articles. Now is the chance to encourage them to wade a little deeper into Wikipedia and its norms and criteria for great content. You’ll probably have discussed many of the core principles of Wikipedia—and related issues you want to focus on—but now that they’ve experienced first-hand how Wikipedia works, this is a good time to return to topics like neutrality, media fluency, and the impact and limits of Wikipedia. Consider bringing in a guest speaker, having a panel discussion, or simply having an open discussion amongst the class about what the students have done so far and why (or whether) it matters.

课堂上

•Open discussion of the concepts of neutrality, media literacy,
and the impact and limits of Wikipedia.

作业(第11周上交)

•Make edits to your article based on peers’ feedback. Prepare for an in-class presentation about your Wikipedia editing experience.

第11周 课堂演讲

Having students explicitly reflect on their experiences with Wikipedia, through presentations and/or reflective essays, can help draw out and solidify what they’ve learned about Wikipedia in particular and media literacy and research more generally. Such assignments, when they include explicit summaries or documentation of what students did or tried to do on Wikipedia, can also serve as the lens for evaluating and grading students’ Wikipedia work.

课堂上

•Students give in-class presentations about their experiences
editing Wikipedia.

作业(第12周上交)

•Add final touches to your Wikipedia article.

•Write a reflective essay (2–5 pages) on your Wikipedia contributions.

第12周

所有作业上交

你做到了!

里程碑

•Students have finished all their work on Wikipedia that will be considered for grading, and have submitted reflective essays.

page 11

評分

This is a basic grading scheme appropriate for a Wikipedia assignment similar to this one. For more ideas on how to grade Wikipedia assignments, see the grading rubrics section of the “Instructor Basics” brochure.

Sample Grading Structure

In grading a “research and write an article” type of assignment, the following grading rubric has been successful:

5% each (x4)

Participation grade for early Wikipedia exercises

10%

Participation in class blog or class discussions

10%

Peer reviews and collaboration with classmates

50%

Quality of your main Wikipedia contributions

10%

Reflective essay

student grade

page 12 (back cover)

WikipediaEduBelow.svg

Ready to join the Wikipedia Education Program?

Education programs already exist in many countries, and Wikimedia volunteers are creating new programs every term. In countries where the Wikipedia Education Program is in operation, volunteer Wikipedia Ambassadors may be available to offer you and your students assistance in learning the best ways to contribute to Wikipedia for class.

Join us! For more information, visit


http://education.wikimedia.org

All images from the Wikimedia Commons are under a CC-BY-SA or public domain license unless otherwise stated. The content contained within is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v.3.0 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:CC-BY-SA) or any later version.

Cc-by-sa (1).svg

The trademarks and logos of the Wikimedia Foundation and any other organization are not included under the terms of this Creative Commons license. Wikimedia Foundation, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, MediaWiki, Wiktionary, Wikibooks, Wikisource, Wikinews, Wikiquote, Wikiversity, Wikispecies, Wikidata, Wikivoyage and Meta-Wiki are pending trademark registration or are registered trademarks of Wikimedia Foundation.

For more information, please see our Trademark Policy page,

http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Trademark_Policy.

For other questions about our licensing terms or trademark policy, please email legal@wikimedia.org