歡迎來到維基百科(書櫃)

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This page is a translated version of the page Welcome to Wikipedia (Bookshelf) and the translation is 42% complete.

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Thank you for translating! :)


Info
Information icon.svg

The first edition of this material got printed in this version in early September 2010. Ideas for further improvement are highly welcome. Please use the discussion page to leave a comment. --Frank Schulenburg 16:59, 3 September 2010 (UTC)

Translations:

NOTE 1: The development page for this deliverable is available here.
NOTE 2: Text in [square brackets] is not printed.


[封面]

[可以呼應主題的背景圖片]

想像看看,世界上每一個人,都能夠自由的存取全人類知識的總合。—吉米·威爾士


[手冊標題:]歡迎來到維基百科

[維基百科標誌]

欢迎来到维基百科

维基百科是世界上最大的百科全书。它由来自世界各地的超过10万名贡献者创建和维护。维基百科每个月都有超过3.88亿独立访客。维基百科有超过1600万个超过260种语言的条目。它可以自由使用、编辑,而且没有广告。(2010年7月的数据)

[Sara {new01.bmp}] 嗨!我叫Sara。当我需要了解一个主题时,就会用到维基百科。但最近我一直在想,这些条目是谁写的?为什么条目有时会更改?我看到说人人可编辑维基百科,我可以吗?怎么编呢?

阅读《欢迎来到维基百科》后,您将能够:

  • 了解维基百科的作品
  • 创建一个维基百科的用户帐号
  • 了解维基百科的用户界面
  • 列出你可以贡献维基百科的不同方法
  • 通过你的用户讨论页与其他用户沟通
  • 解释条目在维基百科上的演变
  • 描述高质量条目的特征
  • 创建新条目

维基百科如何运转?

你在维基百科上看到的一切都是由像你这样的人在网上编写的。事实上,如果不是人们不断地提供信息、图像和数据,维基百科不会成为世界上最大的在线百科全书。维基百科每天增加近1200个条目,每月增加400多万个。(2010年7月的数据)

贡献者(维基人)共同的目标就是自由地给大家提供知识。这就是来自全世界的人们自愿贡献他们的时间和精力来检查和提高维基百科文章质量的原因。

[Sara {new03.bmp}] 但是由谁决定发布什么?总编辑,还是哪个部门?

维基人创建如此多的新条目,如此频繁地编辑现有条目,几乎不可能有足够大的团队来审查和验证对百科全书所做的每一个更改。相反,维基百科依靠来自各方贡献者的投入,来建立世界上最大的百科全书内容库。

大多数参与改善维基百科的人发现,维基百科是一个令人兴奋而且有益的活动。在大家一起迈向共同目标的同时,本身也是愉快的,大多数人参与进来是由于他们对把知识自由地分享给世界充满热情。

[Sara {new16.bmp}] 帮助世界各地的人们获得自由的内容,对我来说很有意义。能告诉我应该从哪儿开始参与吗?

试试!


谁可以编辑维基百科中的现有文章? 选择正确的答案。
UnclickedCheckbox.jpg 只有经验丰富的编者
UnclickedCheckbox.jpg 维基百科的主编
UnclickedCheckbox.jpg 任何可以上网的人

本参考指南后面可以找到关于这个问题和其他测验的答案。

创建维基百科帐户

创建用户帐户是开始贡献维基百科的第一步。用户可以创建新条目、上传图片与移动页面。你还可以用特别的功能,如监视列表。监视列表可以用来跟踪你在编辑的条目,也可以当作书签标记有趣的页面。要将条目添加到监视列表,请单击文章顶部的星形图标。

更重要的是,由于您的所有编辑都被记到您的帐户名下,您在维基百科上便有一个身份。这有助于您与编辑相同条目的其他人进行互动,并帮助您成为社群值得信赖的成员。当你习惯了维基百科,你会发现你在讨论中可以发更多的言,还可以帮别人解决问题。

没有帐号也可以编辑维基百科。不过如果没有帐号,你的编辑会记录在你电脑的IP地址下。维基百科社群往往不信任来自IP地址的编辑,来自学校或公司网络的IP的未注册用户很可能会根据其偏见进行编辑。在维基百科上,参与编辑那些你自己很难做到公正对待的条目属于利益冲突编辑。例如,如果一个学生编辑有关她学校的文章,她可能对学校的国家重要性有偏见。

创建维基百科帐户很容易,您不需要提供任何个人信息:1. 点击页面右上角的创建账户。2. 挑选一个用户名。 3. 选择一个密码。4. 点创建您的账户

[Sara{new05.bmp}] 不难嘛!现在我有了帐户,我可以与其他贡献者一起创建高质量的条目了。

试试!


1 创建维基百科用户帐户
2 通过点击条目页顶部的星号创建您最喜爱的维基百科条目的监视列表。 研究如何在您的监视列表中跟踪文章的更改。

维基百科用户界面

维基百科首页

  • [Discussion] 讨论出现在每个条目的顶部。讨论页是你和其他参与者规划文章结构,讨论和建立文章内容共识,并寻求彼此的帮助的地方。
  • [Recent changes] 最近更改按时间顺序列出对所有维基百科条目的编辑。这让你可以监视条目的错误和破坏。
  • [Help] 帮助为了解维基百科如何运转提供帮助。
  • [Wikipedia languages] 维基百科有超过250种语言。


[Sara {new012.bmp}] 谁写这个条目?我很喜欢!我不知道我是否能写得跟这个条目一样好。


  • [Create account] 创建账户,在页面的右上角,让您可以使用维基百科的所有功能,并帮助构建您的在线个人资料。
  • [View history] 查看历史允许你查看和比较页面的过去版本。
  • [Search] 搜索带你到你检索的条目。如果条目不存在,就会显示出现该词汇的条目。



试试!


1 点击最近更改中任意条目,学习这个页面。请注意每个编辑的时间戳和具体用户或IP地址。观察一些贡献者如何解释他们的编辑。解释一个编辑是一个很好的做法,因为它有助于别人了解你为什么进行编辑。 2 Sara的朋友Josh刚刚开始编辑,发现他需要有关维基百科方针与指引,社群准则和编辑帮助。他在哪里可以找到帮助?
选择正确答案:
UnclickedCheckbox.jpg 最近更改
UnclickedCheckbox.jpg 帮助
UnclickedCheckbox.jpg 搜索

How can I contribute?

Did you know that there are many different roles you can play on Wikipedia? Writing is just one of the many options. Here are some of the roles and what they do:
WikiGnome: Makes minor edits, for example, spelling corrections. Suggests article improvements by leaving messages for the authors by clicking the article Discussion page.
Copyeditor: Improves the language and grammar in an article.
Maintainer: Monitors articles for biased edits and corrects them. A maintainer watches out for changes made by contributors with a personal agenda or political/philosophical point of view, and ensures that factual accuracy is maintained in the articles.
Mediator: Moderates discussion on controversial topics, helps resolve disputes, and provides guidance on contributor behavior.
Illustrator: Uploads images, photographs, maps, and visual aids relevant to the article.
Formatter: Structures or "wikifies" articles, using wiki markup, so they are easier to read.
Author: Adds information to articles from books, websites, newspapers, and other credible sources. An author also initiates the creation of new articles.


[Sara{new017.bmp}] I just corrected an historical fact about Lahore, a city in Pakistan, and guess what? My edits went live as soon as I saved the page. How exciting!

用户页与用户讨论页

There are thousands of contributors who edit Wikipedia each day. Some edits are not verifiable or are made with a biased perspective. That is why some Wikipedians monitor almost all edits using Recent changes (under Interaction in the left menu bar). This feature provides an overview of all edits made in a particular language version of Wikipedia. Because some Wikipedians monitor huge numbers of edits they may sometimes delete an edit that is accurate but not well-written. To prevent that from happening to you, it is important that you write factual information and reference reliable sources.

Add information about yourself and your interests to your User page. Maintaining your User page is a good way to build trust and provide authenticity to your edits. Every account has a User page and a My talk page. You can find the links for the User page and the My talk page at the top right of your screen. Your User page is accessed by clicking on your username which appears next to the bust icon. Click Edit to write about yourself. Then click Save page at the bottom of the screen when you are finished writing.

[Sara{new08.bmp}] What just happened? The edit I made to the article is gone. Did someone take it out? Why would someone do that?

Try it!


Sara likes to take pictures of the places she visits. If she contributes her pictures to Wikipedia she is:
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgIllustrator
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgAuthor
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgMediator
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgFormatter


On your User page you can write about yourself, your special knowledge, and your interest in particular articles. This is also a place where you can mention your affiliations or if you have a potential conflict of interest. For example, it might be hard for you to remain neutral if you edit an article about the organization where you work. However, you can use your in-depth knowledge of your organization to list verifiable sources of information. That way, when you read information about your organization that is inaccurate or outdated, you could leave a message on the article's Discussion page citing the discrepancy and leading article authors to your User page. The authors can then evaluate your sources and use them to update the article on Wikipedia.

My talk and Discussion is a place where other contributors can leave messages for you and you can respond. Many contributors leave welcome greetings to new users. Others might use the space to start a conversation to get to know you or better understand your edits.

Every article also has a Discussion page. This page is used by Wikipedians to plan how they will collaborate on the content and resolve conflicts. If someone wonders why you have made an edit, or would like to recommend another article to you, they will use the article's Discussion page. The article's Discussion page. The article's Discussion page also a good place to ask for help with the article.

Note: Discussion and My talk are also called talk pages by the community.

[Sara{new013.bmp}] Oh, someone just left a note on my talk page. The message explains that my edits were reverted because I had not cited a source. Since the fact is mentioned on the government website, I will make the edit again. This time I will include the source in the references section below the article itself. That should work.



Try it!


  • Click your username and then click Edit, in order to edit your User page. Explore the various options in the editing toolbar - B (Bold), I (Italics), and Chain Links Symbol (Link).

Click Advanced to see the format tools.
Wiki markup quick reference is available at the back of this reference guide.

条目的成长

虽然维基百科的文章应该是写得又详细又好,但是没有人一次性就把条目写得很详尽。条目往往在广泛协作中成长起来,通常会遵循以下模式:

  • Most successful articles start small and consist of a summary of the topic (overview), a statement that tells why the topic is noteworthy ("the first...", "the biggest...", "the capital of...", etc.), and a source outside Wikipedia confirming the existence and importance of the topic (a credible publication or website). This basic article is called a "stub". If any of the three items are missing the community may assume the topic is not important and delete the article.
  • As other users add text and images to an article, it matures from a topical overview to a more detailed article that captures various perspectives such as historical (for example "in 1923, new factors..."), or global (for example "in Europe, this was viewed as..."). More active contributors might nominate their article for a Wikipedia peer review process. The Wikipedia peer review process involves close scrutiny of the article's quality from a broad group of Wikipedians. The process is applied to articles that have undergone extensive work. The review process involves addressing comments, questions and suggestions from the peer reviewers. Based on the feedback, the writers plan their article improvement strategy using the article's Discussion page.
  • Finally, an article reaches a level where it is so well-written, sourced, and comprehensive, that only experts can add much value to it. These articles might be designated as good articles. A few articles could be recognized by the community as being of the highest quality. These are designated as featured articles. Featured articles are displayed on the Wikipedia main page. It takes time and effort to write articles at this level. Collaborating to create a featured article is gratifying and also enhances your status in the Wikipedia community. Just as all other articles, a featured article continues to be edited.


[Sara {new015.bmp}] I dream about contributing to an article that appears on the main page of a website with millions of readers.



Try it!


  • What does the Wikipedia peer review process involve? Select the correct answer:

UnclickedCheckbox.jpgReview of article quality by a group of Wikipedians
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgReview of article quality by a group of experts
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgReview of article quality by Wikimedia Foundation

What makes a quality article?

A quality Wikipedia article is the result of a well defined structure, encyclopedic content, and an active community:

Structure: Providing a clear article structure helps readers find information and assists editors in keeping all aspects of a topic well organized. One way to learn about structure is to study featured articles, Wikipedia's finest articles. You can access all featured articles by going to the Wikipedia main page. At the bottom of Today's featured article, click More featured articles... then scroll down to Contents and select the subject that interests you.

Most quality articles have the following structure:

  • Lead section that summarizes the key points covered in the article. Note that the lead section is without a header.
  • The body of the article follows the lead section and includes specific headers and subheaders. A geographic location, for example, might have the following headers: history, geography, climate, economy, civic administration, demographics, and culture.
  • Appendices and footnotes appear after the body of the article. These may include bibliographies, links to other Wikipedia articles, notes and references, relevant publications, and websites.

Content: Many Wikipedians consider content the most important factor in judging an article's quality. To ensure consistent quality, the Wikipedia community created these four guidelines.

  • Provide Sources: Writers are encouraged to provide sources for further information. Every fact should be verifiable by a reliable source.
  • Neutral Point of View: Articles must be written fairly, without bias, and present previously published notable views.
  • No Promotional Content: Promotional material, how-to instructions, resumes, and sales catalogs do not belong in Wikipedia.
  • No Original Research: It is not appropriate to include your own new ideas on a subject (Wikipedia calls this original research), or your personal opinions about a subject.

Community: All contributions to Wikipedia are freely licensed to the public. That means that no editor owns any article. All contributions can and will be heavily edited by many different users. In other words, everybody can join in the decision making process. The community also uses Discussion to agree on the content structure for the article. For times when consensus is hard to reach, check out the various options available at Help > The Wikipedia community. Some writers and editors have years of experience with Wikipedia and their experience can be a valuable resource for resolving conflicts.


[Sara{new010.bmp}]I cannot find an article about this subject. Should I wait for someone else to start the article?

Try it!


  • The body of an article has no headers. Select the correct answer.

UnclickedCheckbox.jpgTrue
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgFalse

  • What aspects should a quality encyclopedic article have? Select the correct answers.

UnclickedCheckbox.jpgVerifiable sources
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgNeutral point of view
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgHow-to instructions
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgSummary, body, footnotes

创建新条目

There are many topics that do not have an article on Wikipedia. If you think a topic is missing from Wikipedia, search variations of the topic name. For example, try different spellings. Also check if the subject is mentioned in closely related topics. An island for example, may be mentioned in an article about its country. If the topic is not mentioned in Wikipedia, maybe it is too obscure to write about, such as a garage band or an unknown person with a blog. However, if you feel that the topic should genuinely be included in Wikipedia, consider creating the article yourself.

Search the article title. You will see it in a red hyperlink, if the article on it does not exist. Click this hyperlink to start adding to and editing a new article, by that name.

Your new article will get a good start, if you remember to provide the following three elements:

  1. Summary of the topic
  2. Reason why the topic is notable
  3. Reference to a credible source about the topic


[Sara{new02.bmp}] My very first Wikipedia article is now online! It will be exciting to see how the community comes together to expand this article.

When you start your article you will need a place to work. Create your own workspace or "sandbox" where you can edit your article until it has all the three critical elements.

To create your sandbox: Go to your User page> Click Edit> Write [[User:<Your user name>/Sandbox]] > Save page> Click the link you just created. You are now in your sandbox!

Use the sandbox to write your article. Do not forget to click Save page when you are done editing. When you are ready, find another Wikipedia editor who might be interested in the topic. One way to find an editor is to look at the View history tab of an article on a similar topic and see who has contributed to that article. Leave a message on the that editor's Discussion page with a request to review your article. When you are ready, copy the article content from your sandbox, go to the topic name you have chosen, click Edit, paste the content and save the page. Now, that you have created a new article, do not stop here. Link your article to other articles where your topic is mentioned.



Try it!


  • What are the three elements to incorporate in your new article? Select the correct answer.

UnclickedCheckbox.jpgAn explanation, its notability, and a source
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgAn explanation, a picture, and a link to another article
UnclickedCheckbox.jpgA name, its notability, and a source

A Wikipedian

[Sara {new019.bmp}] Before my trip to Morocco next month, I will use Wikipedia's Create a book feature. [She points to the menu on the left.] I will collect articles that I need and print a personal travel guide. Wikipedia has many more features than I first thought.


[Sara{new011.bmp}] Well, time sure flies! I just clicked My contributions at the top of the page to discover that I have more than 100 edits. I have so much fun connecting with other Wikipedians, writing quality articles, and spreading knowledge that can be accessed for free!



Now that you have read Welcome to Wikipedia, you are able to:

  • Understand how Wikipedia works
  • Create a Wikipedia user account
  • Understand Wikipedia's user interface
  • List the different ways you can contribute to Wikipedia
  • Communicate with other users through your My talk page
  • Explain how an article evolves on Wikipedia
  • Describe the attributes of a quality article
  • Create a new article

This educational content is brought to you by Wikimedia Bookshelf project. To download an electronic copy of Welcome to Wikipedia and other Bookshelf materials, visit: http://bookshelf.wikimedia.org

This location also houses source files that allow you to translate, customize, and reuse Bookshelf materials.

Wiki markup quick reference [Back flap]

To make changes to an article, click Edit at the top of an article, make your edits, and then click Save page. Your edits are now visible to anyone who visits the page. If you have more information to add or need to correct a mistake, make another edit. Do not be afraid - you cannot accidentally make permanent deletions. All previous versions of an article are saved under View history and contributors can revert to an earlier version by simply clicking undo.

Provided below are shortcuts to frequently used wiki markup that will help you when you edit Wikipedia articles.

Description - What you type - What you get

  • Italic - ''italic text'' - Italic text
  • Bold - '''bold text''' - Bold text
  • Section headers -

==Heading Text== - [insert image]

===Heading Texy=== - [insert image]
====Heading Tex==== - [insert image]
  • Link to another Wikipedia article (Internal link) - [[William Shakespeare]] - [insert image]
Link with another displayed title - [[William Shakespeare |Shakespeare]] - [insert image] - [insert image]
  • Link outside Wikipedia (External link) - [http://www.whitehouse.gov Whitehouse website] - [insert image]
  • Bulleted list -

* Bulleted list - [insert image]
** Bulleted list
Numbered list -
# List item - [insert image]
## List item

  • Image with caption - [[File:Example.png|Caption text]] - [insert image]
  • Your signature for Discussion page- ~~~~ - [insert image]
  • Reference - <ref><ref name="test">[http://www.example.org Link text], additional text.</ref> - [insert image]
  • Display references - <references/> - [insert image]

You can find more formatting tips by clicking Help on the left menu bar.

Try it! answer Key [Inner side of the back cover]

How does Wikipedia work?
Who can write articles for Wikipedia?
ClickedCheckbox.jpg Anyone who has access to the Internet

Wikipedia user interface
Sara's friend Josh just started editing and finds that he needs help with Wikipedia policies and guidelines, community standards, and general help for editors. Where can he find assistance?
ClickedCheckbox.jpg Help

How can I contribute
Sara likes to take pictures of the places she visits. Sara can contribute to Wikipedia as:
ClickedCheckbox.jpgAn Illustrator

Life of an article

  • What does the Wikipedia peer review process involve?

ClickedCheckbox.jpgReview of article quality by a group of Wikipedians

What makes for a quality article
1. The body of an article has no headers.
ClickedCheckbox.jpgFalse

What should a quality encyclopedic article have?
ClickedCheckbox.jpgVerifiable sources
ClickedCheckbox.jpgNeutral point of view
ClickedCheckbox.jpgSummary, body, footnotes

Create a new article
What are the three elements to incorporate in your new article?
ClickedCheckbox.jpgA summary, its notability, and a source

[封底]

你是每天使用维基百科的1200万人之一吗?

每天来自世界各地的人们使用维基百科来帮助他们的学校项目、商业计划、个人研究或旅游计划。他们用它来点燃新的想法,并与其他用户集思广益。他们用它来探索遥远的土地、古代文化、艺术,了解政治和最近的事件。

《欢迎来到维基百科》是给任何想向前一步,决定为这个最大的协作知识库加入内容,并将其分享出去的人的一本参考指南。

跟随Sara在维基百科上做出首次编辑的脚步,你将学到贡献维基百科需要知道的关键概念、指引、信息和工具。

[维基媒体办公地址]

[維基百科標誌]

维基媒体基金会是一个非营利慈善组织,运行维基百科和其他自由授权的网站。